Background: As adolescent suicide rates continue to rise, innovation in risk identification is warranted. Machine learning can identify suicidal individuals based on their language samples. This feasibility pilot was conducted to explore this technology’s use in adolescent therapy sessions and assess machine learning model performance.
Method: Natural language processing machine learning models to identify level of suicide risk using a smartphone app were tested in outpatient therapy sessions. Data collection included language samples, depression and suicidality standardized scale scores, and therapist impression of the client’s mental state. Previously developed models were used to predict suicidal risk.
Results: 267 interviews were collected from 60 students in eight schools by ten therapists, with 29 students indicating suicide or self-harm risk. During external validation, models were trained on suicidal speech samples collected from two separate studies. We found that support vector machines (AUC: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.69–0.81) and logistic regression (AUC: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.70–0.82) lead to good discriminative ability, with an extreme gradient boosting model performing the best (AUC: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.72–0.84).
Conclusion: Voice collection technology and associated procedures can be integrated into mental health therapists’ workflow. Collected language samples could be classified with good discrimination using machine learning methods.
Objective: With early identification and intervention, many suicidal deaths are preventable. Tools that include machine learning methods have been able to identify suicidal language. This paper examines the persistence of this suicidal language up to 30 days after discharge from care.
Method: In a multi-center study, 253 subjects were enrolled into either suicidal or control cohorts. Their responses to standardized instruments and interviews were analyzed using machine learning algorithms. Subjects were re-interviewed approximately 30 days later, and their language was compared to the original language to determine the presence of suicidal ideation.
Results: The results show that language characteristics used to classify suicidality at the initial encounter are still present in the speech 30 days later (AUC = 89% (95% CI: 85-95%), p < .0001) and that algorithms trained on the second interviews could also identify the subjects that produced the first interviews (AUC = 85% (95% CI: 81-90%), p < .0001).
Conclusions: This approach explores the stability of suicidal language. When using advanced computational methods, the results show that a patient's language is similar 30 days after first captured, while responses to standard measures change. This can be useful when developing methods that identify the data-based phenotype of a subject.
In this novel prospective, multimodal, multicenter, mixed demographic study, we used machine learning to measure and fuse two classes of suicidal thought markers: verbal and nonverbal. Machine learning algorithms were used with the subjects’ words and vocal characteristics to classify 379 subjects recruited from two academic medical centers and a rural community hospital into one of three groups: suicidal, mentally ill but not suicidal, or controls. By combining linguistic and acoustic characteristics, subjects could be classified into one of the three groups with up to 85% accuracy. The results provide insight into how advanced technology can be used for suicide assessment and prevention.
What adolescents say when they think about or attempt suicide influences the medical care they receive. Mental health professionals use teenagers’ words, actions, and gestures to gain insight into their emotional state and to prescribe what they believe to be optimal care. This prescription is often inconsistent among caregivers, however, and leads to varying outcomes. This variation could be reduced by applying machine learning as an aid in clinical decision support. We designed a prospective clinical trial to test the hypothesis that machine learning methods can discriminate between the conversation of suicidal and nonsuicidal individuals. Using semisupervised machine learning methods, the conversations of 30 suicidal adolescents and 30 matched controls were recorded and analyzed. The results show that the machines accurately distinguished between suicidal and nonsuicidal teenagers.
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25–34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15–25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient’s thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.